On the Importance of Questions in an Investigation

questionsI spend a large part of my day studying cognition related to security investigations, which can ultimately be boiled down to thinking about how we learn and process information during and around our investigative processes. As part of my research, one of my professors recently pointed me towards a TEDx video by Dan Rothstein entitled “Did Socrates Get it Wrong?”. In this fourteen minute talk Rothstein questions whether Socrates approach of expert led questioning, commonly referred to as the Socratic method, was wrong. He brings up quite a few fascinating points, but ultimately concludes that Socrates was right and wrong, and that strategic questioning is of the utmost importance, but that it can also be an entirely student lead exercise. The key here is that asking the right question is critical for exploration, and of course, getting to the right answer.

This has quite a few implications to security investigations. Strategic questioning as a means towards finding and eliminating bias is something that immediately comes to mind, but not what I want to talk about here.

At a more fundamental level is questioning as the essence of the investigation process. I tend to believe that an investigation itself is simply a question. Usually something like this:

  • What happened here?
  • Did we get compromised?
  • Did APT[x] access any of our information assets?

Going one step further, I would also hypothesize that every action we take during the course of an investigation can be distilled down into a question, like these:

  • Does the activity identified in this alert match what the signature was trying to detect?
  • Did internal Host A communicate with external Host B?
  • Did the device download and execute the stage two payload of this malware family?
  • Is there a log indicating that a specific file was accessed?

Most of the time these questions don’t materialize in this form. Typically, they develop in our subconscious and analysts go forth looking for answers before they’ve articulated the question fully. I may not actually ask myself “Does the data in this PCAP match what the signature was looking for in the appropriate context?” before I go look at the signature to see what it was attempting to detect, but subconsciously that is exactly what I’m doing. Research suggests that a lot of this can be attributed to the formulation of habits or intuition (potentially in a brain structure known as the precuneus) that help us be more cognitively efficient. While this type of intuition can help us get things done faster, there is immense value in ripping these things from our subconscious into our conscious thought so that they can be articulated.

A couple things come to mind immediately when assessing the value of articulating questions consciously. First, if all of an investigation can be based on questions, we must ensure we are asking the right questions. This requires us to be consciously aware of those questions before we seek to solve them. Second, if we hope to successfully train the next generation of analysts then we have to teach them to ask the right questions, again requiring us to be consciously aware of what they are.

If you are a security investigator or are responsible for training them, consider creating a culture of articulated questions in your SOC. Before acting, attempt to determine what question you are trying to answer and share that information with your peers. I would bet that you will find this type of strategic questioning will help you ask better questions and more effectively guide your investigation towards an appropriate goal.


Dan Rothstein, “Did Socrates Get it Wrong”, TEDx Somerville – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_JdczdsYBNA 

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