One of the more interesting concepts I’ve come to study recently is the theory of multiple intelligences, which was originally proposed in the 1980s by Dr. Howard Gardner, a developmental psychologist. The Theory of Multiple Intelligence (MI) simply states that rather than humans having a singular intelligence, we have a set of different intelligences that are independent and entirely unique. While his theory does have some detractors and competing schools of thought, it has generally been met with great intrigue and is a popular area of study for developmental, cognitive, and industrial psychology scholars alike. In this post I want to discuss the theory of MI and how I think it relates to security investigations. While you might be expecting concise post full of conclusions with a nice bow on it, this article is more about raising questions and getting some of my notes on paper for further research.
We often think of intelligence as a measure of how much someone knows about something, but that more accurately describes aptitude than intelligence. An intelligence is actually a computation capacity. This is why true intelligence tests that result in intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are much more about measuring someone’s ability to learn than what they have learned. Traditionally, intelligence was viewed as a single biological construct. The theory of MI pluralizes this concept of computational capacity such that more than one of them exists, and that they exist as independent intelligences.
There are several criteria surrounding what the core intelligences are. This includes the intelligence being universal to the entire human species, an identifiable set of core operations, and a susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system where meaning can be captured. I don’t want to delve too far into these criteria here, but if you are interested in this you can read more in Dr. Gardner’s books mentioned at the end of the post. The result of Gardner’s study into MI resulted in the formulation of seven intelligences, with the assertion that all humans have the full range of these intelligences. I’ll give a basic outline of those now.
- Musical-Rhythmic: Has to do with sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music. People with high musical intelligence can often recognize and match pitch well, and are able to sing, play instruments, and compose music. These people usually excel careers as musicians, composers, singers, or producers.
- Bodily-Kinesthetic: Relates to control of one’s bodily motions and the capacity to handle objets skillfully, to include a sense of timing and muscle memory. People with high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are generally good at physical activities like working out, sports, dancing, or craftsmen activities. These people usually excel in careers as athletes, dancers, and various types of builders.
- Logical-Mathematical: Has to do with logic, reasoning, numbers, and critical thinking. People with high logical-mathematical intelligence excel at problem solving, thinking about abstract ideas, solving complex computations, and conducting scientific experiments. These people usually excel in careers as scientists, programmers, engineers, and accountants.
- Verbal-Linguistic: Deals with the ability to process, interpret, and form words. People with high verbal-linguistic intelligence are good at reading, writing, telling stories, and memorizing words and dates. These people usually excel in careers as writers, lawyers, journalists, and teachers.
- Visual-Spatial: Has to do with the ability to visualize things in the mind. People with high visual-spatial intelligence excel at navigating, doing jigsaw puzzles, reading maps, recognizing patterns, interpreting graphs and charts, and daydreaming. These people usually excel in careers as architects, artists, and engineers.
- Interpersonal: Focused on interaction with others and the ability to recognize and be sensitive to others moods, feelings, temperaments, and motivations. People with high interpersonal intelligence communicate effectively and empathize well with others. They often enjoy debates and excel at verbal and nonverbal communication. These people usually excel in careers as psychologists, counselors, politicians, and sales.
- Intrapersonal: Focused on introspective and self-reflective capacities. People with high intrapersonal intelligence have a strong ability to assess their own strengths and weaknesses and predict their own reactions and emotions. These people usually excel in careers as writers, scientists, and philosophers.
A key takeaway under MI theory is that every human is born with each of these intelligences, but no two people have the same level of every intelligence. Even identical twins will have varying levels of each intelligence because we know that intelligence is shaped by nature and nurture. Additionally, we know that just because someone has a high level of a particular intelligence doesn’t mean that they will use that intelligence in a smart manner. For instance, someone with high logical-mathematical intelligence might choose to use their intelligence to guess lottery numbers for a living instead of applying it to one of the sciences, accounting, etc.
Intelligence and Security Investigations
Whether or not you subscribe to MI theory, it does provide an interesting approach towards viewing how and why certain people excel in different types of security investigations. There are multiple types of security investigation domains, including event-driven (triage) analysis, NSM hunting, malware analysis, and forensic response. I hold that each of these domains requires a specific balance and emphasis of abilities and computational capacity. With that in mind, it brings about an interesting question of which intelligences are most suited to particular types of security investigations.
The first thing that must be considered is whether each investigative domains is more suited to a laser or search light intellectual profile. These terms define the manner in which people typically excel in certain intelligences. A laser is a person who generally has a high elevation in one or two intelligences. A search light is a person who has an equal level of moderately elevated intelligence in three to four intelligences, but does not have a very high elevation in any one intelligence. Lasers tend to focus on one specific focus area or task, where as search lights tend to work in areas that require a constant surveying of multiple elements to form a bigger picture. Once each investigative domain is tied to a laser or search light profile, the individual intelligences that are most applicable can be determined.
I don’t have a lot of concrete thoughts yet related to which intellectual profiles and intelligences are suited to each investigative domain, and I certainly don’t have a thorough accounting for every relevant domain for information security. However, I do have some initial thoughts that warrant more research. I could postulate on this for quite some time, but a few things that initially come to mind including the following:
- Most traditional computer scientists would probably think that security investigations are almost exclusively related to logical-mathematical intelligence. I’d challenge this for some investigative domains. In a lot of cases I believe visual-spatial intelligence is much more important.
- Malware analysis tends to lean more towards a laser profile. It also requires a great deal of logical-mathematical intelligence due to the need to interpret and reverse engineer source code during static analysis.
- Triage analysis and forensic response requires visual-spatial intelligence because of all the moving parts that must be assimilated into a bigger picture. These are a product of the reliance on divergent thinking during these processes, and the need to rapidly shift to convergent thinking one a critical mass of ideas and knowledge has been reached.
- Forensic response requires a greater deal of interpersonal intelligence due to the reliance on communication with various new and unfamiliar stakeholders. The ability to empathize and gauge moods is critical. I would guess that a search light profile would be most desired here.
- Intelligence analysis requires an elevated interpersonal intelligence due to the need to assess motivations.
- Analysis across most domains in a team setting requires some level of intrapersonal intelligence so that practitioners can identify their own deficiencies along the lines of alternative analysis methods.
If we can identify investigative domains and determine which intelligences are most suited to those, we can be a lot more successful in identifying the right people for those roles and educating them appropriately so that they are successful. This is another step along the way towards converting tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge and gaining a better advantage in security analysis scenarios.
Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons (2008), Howard Gardner
Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983), Howard Gardner